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舊 2003-10-18, 08:43   #1
kevin
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VCC天然岩場打路線政策(澳洲)

原始資料來源 :澳洲維多利亞攀登俱樂部(VCC)
bolting policy:http://www.vicclimb.org.au/media/pdf/BoltPolicy.pdf

原始資料來提供:何中達(cdho)


翻譯:林裕馨(shin)
說明:若有任何疑問請參照原文,並請不吝指教。

VCC Bolting and Fixed Protection Policy For Rock Climbing – Version 1.0

VCC攀岩之錨栓及固定點裝設政策--- 1.0版

Introduction/Preamble
Bolting has an historical place in Australian climbing. It has both its supporters and its detractors, making it possibly one of the most divisive aspects of our sport. Well placed fixed protection allows climbers to climb, belay or rappel/abseil with improved safety. Conversely, poorly placed bolts and over-bolted climbs may diminish or destroy the climbing experience. It is important that these guidelines reflect the local traditions and attitudes to both climbing and the environmental management of the cliff and environs. Placing fixed protection permanently defaces the rock and as such it should be a last resort.

介紹序言

在澳洲的攀岩活動中,打路線具有其歷史地位。有人贊成,也有人批評,以致打路線可能是攀岩運動中最具爭議的議題之一。裝設良好的固定支點讓攀岩者得以更安全地攀登、確保、垂降。相反地,錨栓安裝不良、路線過度施工,可能減損或毀掉整個攀登歷程。這些指導守則,務求反應出本地對攀岩運動與對岩壁及環境保謢的一貫傳統和態度。打入固定支點會對岩壁造成永久的傷害,因此非不得已,不打路線。        

A bolting policy needs to address safety issues to minimize the risk of death or injury, and to alleviate land manager fears of litigation. The policy also needs to address environmental impacts, both positive and negative, resulting from the placement of fixed protection and anchors.

打路線的政策必須提出安全要點,以將受傷與死亡的風險降至最低,並減輕當地管理員對訴訟纒身的不安。政策中也要提及裝設固定支點後,對環境造成的正面與負面影響。

The VCC aims to promote safe bolting and environmentally sound practices. The VCC as an organization cannot actively place or replace bolts or instruct on bolt placement due to terms of their insurance. The VCC may direct interested individuals to suppliers or manufacturers of bolting related products but it is up to the individual to properly research the products and follow the manufacturer\'s instructions when placing fixed protection.

VCC旨在提升路線施工安全與環境落實。VCC組織無法根據固定支點的保險時效,而主動將之更換、安裝,或通令施工。VCC僅能提供相關器材供應商的資訊,有心人士需自行對器材做適當研究,並根據供應商的器材使用說明,裝設固定支點。

1. Where to Place Fixed Protection/Anchors
何處安裝固定支點?


1.1 It is the generally accepted practice that the first ascentionist chooses whether to place fixed protection, and where and what type of protection is used. It is important that the first ascentionist carefully considers where each point of fixed protection is placed, taking into account all safety, environmental and ethical considerations.

1.1普遍的共識是由首攀者決定是否裝設固定支點、裝設的地點和固定支點的類型。首攀者須慎重考慮每一個固定支點的位置,並將安全、環境和攀登倫理納入全盤考量,這是十分重要的。

1.2 It is also vitally important that the first ascentionist uses a suitable product, has practised placements before drilling a cliff (e.g. in concrete) and installs it according to the manufacturer\'s instructions.

1.2首攀者選用合宜的產品、於岩壁上鑽孔前曾練習操作(如於水泥牆上)、並根據廠商的使用說明施工,也是至為緊要的。

1.3 Fixed protection is inappropriate on climbs that can be adequately protected by natural means. Fixed protection should be used as a last resort and only to enable a climb to be lead with minimum risk of serious injury (i.e. fixed protection should not be placed just to reduce the size of a fall where the fall can be considered ‘safe’).

1.3在可利用天然方式確保的攀爬區域裝設固定支點為不當之舉。安裝固定支點應是非不得以的考量,目的只在將攀登時的嚴重運動傷害風險降到最低。(例,在可安全墜落之處,不得為求縮短墜落距離而安裝固定支點。)

1.4 Fixed protection should not be added or moved on a climb (i.e. retro-bolting) that has previously been done by naturally protected means without the express permission of the first ascentionist. If the bolt placement needs to be changed and the first ascentionist cannot be contacted then ‘local best practice’ should be used (see section 5 – Replacing Bolts, Bolt Removal and Retro-bolting). Routes exist where the first ascentionist wanted to create a climb in the purest possible style. Adding or moving bolts may alter the nature of the climb and devalue the efforts of the first ascent.

1.4一路線由首攀者以天然方式確保完攀後,未經首攀者同意,不得於該路線上增加或移動固定支點(如重修路線時)。如果固定支點的裝設位置必須更改,卻無法聯絡上首攀者,那麼就必須依「本地最佳範例」施工(參照第五節 更換錨栓,移除錨栓,重修路線。)路線必須保持其首攀者開發時致力追求的純粹型態。移動或增加錨栓可能改變路線的原貌,讓首攀者的努力付之東流。

1.5 Fixed protection/anchors should not interfere with nearby existing routes. Where a new climb is in close proximity to an existing route, where practicable, it is preferable to utilize the protection on the existing route.

1.5固定支點錨栓之安裝不應干擾到其他鄰近的路線。當新路線與既有路線極度接近時,在可行的狀況下,利用既有路線上的固定支點是較好的方式。

1.6 Climbers should not place fixed protection on climbs that could reasonably be deemed short enough to be described as bouldering problems.

1.6攀岩者不得在理應視為抱石路線的短路線上裝設固定支點。

1.7 Fixed protection should be placed to prevent the risk of ground fall, hitting dangerous obstacles or factor two falls. However consistent with point 1.4 the risk of a dangerous fall on an existing climb may not necessarily justify retro-bolting the climb.

1.7固定支點應是為避免直接墜地、衝撞危險障礙物或係數2之墜落而裝設的。然而墜落係數為1.4時的危險墜落風險,未必足以作為重修既有路線的考量。

1.8 Fixed protection within a climbing area preferably should be consistent with local practice and consistent with the nature of the climb (e.g. granite slab, steep sports climb etc.) unless safety considerations deem it necessary to use alternative protection (e.g. fixed hangers/ringbolts should be placed where putting a bracket on a bolt would be extremely difficult or where the climb is overhanging). Every effort should be made to find out what the local best practice is. VCC Bolting and Fixed Protection Policy For Rock Climbing – Version 1.0 1 of 5

1.8在攀岩區域內固定支點之架設,除非是基於安全考量而必須使用另外的支點(例:設固定掛環/環形耳片的地點,應是極難將支架掛上耳片之處,或該處為懸岩地形。),否則,最好能合於本地架設實例與攀登地形的種類(如花岡岩斜板、峭壁之運動攀登等。 )。務請盡力了解、參照本地最佳實例。參見參見VCC攀岩之錨栓及固定點裝設政策--- 1.0版,5之1
1.9 Bolts should not be added to an area that is declared either ‘bolt free’ or ‘no more bolts’. This status should be defined by Park Management Plans, climbing guidebooks or local best practice.

1.9在標有「無耳片」或「不可再裝耳片」的地區中,不得加裝任何耳片。其標準須以公園管理計畫、指導手冊、或本地最佳實例為依據。

1.10 Fixed protection should be placed with consideration for other climbers. It is preferable to top-rope the route first to assess natural protection placements and to mark best bolt locations. Placements should be consistent for the grade and where practicable should not disadvantage climbers with shorter reach.

1.10固定點之架設應為其他攀岩者著想。較好的方式是先採上方確保,以估定天然支點位置,及標記最佳的施工位置。其位置應適於該路線的級數,且不會因相距太近而不利於攀岩者使用。

1.11 When a climb is predominantly bolted then any need for natural protection should be stated in the route description. Also the method of descent should be clearly stated where lower-offs are not provided.

1.11當一路線已施工,則須於該路線說明中註明是否需要使用天然支點。同時,對下降方式的說明中須著明何處未設下降點。


2. Type of Fixed Protection
2. 固定支點的類型


2.1Bolts must be stainless steel or titanium. Grade 304 stainless steel is recommended for inland areas and Grade 316 stainless steel or titanium is recommended for coastal areas or other highly corrosive environments.

2.1錨栓必須為不袗或鈦金屬。於內陸地區,建議使用304級不袗材質;於海岸地區或其他腐蝕性強的區域,建議使用316級不袗或鈦金屬材質。

2.2 Where two metal components of an anchor are in contact both components should be the same grade of stainless steel, for example a fixed hanger and an expansion bolt.

2.2兩個金屬的錨栓元件,接觸之處的材質須為同級的不袗,如固定耳片和膨脹錨栓。

2.3 All forms of fixed protection placed should be manufactured to meet or exceed the European standard EN 959 of 15kN in the axial direction and 25kN in the radial direction. Note: this standard is for the ultimate load for the product. Most products state the normal ‘working load’ so check with the manufacturer how to convert ‘working load’ to ‘ultimate load’.

2.3所有類型的固定支點,必須符合或超過安全標準EN 959(註,EN為歐洲標準委員會),即軸向受力15kN,徑向受力25kN之標準。大部分的產品只標示一般的「操作負荷值」,因此,請向廠商確認如何將其「操作負荷值」換算為「極限負荷值」。

2.4 Consistent with point 2.3 all forms of fixed protection should be installed in accordance with the manufacturer\'s instructions. Incorrect installation may lead to failure of fixed protection regardless of the strength rating of the product.

2.4符合2.3規定的各類型固定支點必須依照各廠商的使用說明加以安裝。任何固定點無論強度為何,一經不當安裝,都會失靈。

2.5 The use of hammer-in ‘carrots’ is not recommended, as their reliability will vary depending on the skill of the installer and the hardness of the rock. They may also be subject to corrosion and bolt ‘creep’.

2.5不建議使用需以鐵鎚鎚入的「carrots」錨栓(譯者不確定為何種類型之錨栓,請知之者指點),因為此種錨栓是否可靠,多賴施工者個人的技術和該處岩石的硬度。此種錨栓也可能發生腐蝕和日漸鬆脫的情形。

2.6 Glues used should be industrial masonry glues suitable for dynamic loading and prepared and applied in accordance with the manufacturer\'s instructions.

2.6黏著劑應為適於動態墜落的工業用混凝土黏著劑,並根據廠商的使用說明正確地加以施用。

2.7 Glue in fixed protection/anchors must be checked and moderately load tested sometime after the recommended curing time.

2.7固定支點上的黏著劑經建議時間而凝固後,應對其進行確認並進行適度的負重測試。

2.8 Glue in U-staples should not be used unless they are specifically made for rock climbing and tested to the minimum European standard when installed according to instruction.

2.8施工時,用於U形大釘(U staple)的黏著劑並不適用,除非其上有註明專為攀岩活動設計,並符合歐洲標準的最低標。

2.9 Self-tapping/self-drilling bolts should not be used unless they are specifically recommended for rock climbing and meet the minimum European standard when installed according to instruction.

2.9施工時,鐵板牙錨栓/鑽尾錨栓並不適用,除非其上有註明專為攀岩活動設計,並符合歐洲標準的最低標。
2.10 Pitons should not be placed as fixed protection. (see point 5.5 for replacing Pitons.)

2.10不可用岩釘作為固定支點。(參照 5.5 替換岩釘)

3. Belay Anchors and Rappel/Abseil Stations
確保固定點和下降站


3.1Installing of rappel/abseil anchors should be kept to a minimum. Where possible one rappel station should service the tops of all climbs in the immediate area that can safely access the rappel/abseil point.

3.1下降固定點之設置應保持在最低數量。一個可能的下降固定點位置,應能在一安全可及的適當範圍內為多條路線所共用。

3.2 Natural protection should be used for belay anchors where at least 2, preferably 3, independent bombproof anchors can be used.

3.2於天然支點上,應使用確保固定點,同時,該處應能使用至少兩個極穩固的固定點,三個更好。

3.3 Additional belay anchors may be installed/replaced where no natural means of protection is available and where the existing belay anchor is inadequate.

3.3當某處無法用天然的確保方式,且該處既有的確保固定點不適用時,可另外增設或替換固定點。

3.4 Rappel/abseil stations should be installed where a tree is used for the anchor or where other features used may be unsafe (e.g. old fixed sling or unsafe natural \"bollard\").

3.4下降站的設置處,應在只能借樹木或不可靠的物體(如老舊的固定扁帶或不安全的天然柱體)設固定點的地方。

3.5 Each rappel/abseil station should have two separate anchors installed at least 200mm apart. The rappel/abseil rope should feed through each of the two anchors independently unless the anchor has been specifically manufactured as a rappel/abseil anchor and designed with one point of contact (i.e. it is not acceptable to feed the rope through a single non-rated D-shackle or similar product).

3.5每個下降站應設有兩個相距至少200公厘的固定點。下降時,除非是使用一個下降專用的單一接點的固定點,否則,下降用的主繩應該分別穿過兩個固定點(例:主繩只穿過一個未經核可的D形卸扣或類似的產品是不被接受的。)。

3.6 Rappel/abseil station components though which the rope is threaded should be replaceable.

3.6下降點中與主繩摩擦的部件必須是可替換的。

3.7 Products used for rappel/abseil stations should be tested and rated to at least meet UIAA standard 25kN. Home made brackets, and non-rated components such as D-shackles, maillons rapide, chain links etc. should not be used.

3.7裝設在下降站的產品必通過品質檢驗,至少達到UIAA 25kN 之標準。不得使用自製的支架及未經核可的D形卸扣、鍊圈等產物。


4 Environmental Considerations 環境考量
4.1 Fixed protection/anchors should not be visually intrusive particularly where the climb is located next to popular walking tracks. For climbs less than vertical hangerless machine bolts are recommended to reduce visual impact. Rock coloured stainless steel should be used.

4.1固定支點不可過於顯著而妨礙景觀,若該路線十分接近熱門的人行路線,則須要特別加以注意。若攀登路線角度小於直角,應使用無掛環機械錨栓,以減低對景觀的影響。同時,應使用攀岩專用的有色不袗。

4.2 While all effort should be made to minimise the visual impact of fixed protection this should not compromise the ability of a climber to see the protection. Fixed protection should be placed on clear rock within the line of climbing.

4.2在盡力減低固定支點對環境影觀的影響同時,不能因而使得攀岩者難以看見固定支點的所在。固定支點應沿著攀登路線,設置於顯見的岩石上。

4.3 Rappel/abseil stations should be installed where descending by foot is likely to cause erosion problems.

4.3下降點的設置處,應選在以步行方式下降會產生侵蝕問題的地點。

4.4 Rappel/abseil stations should be installed where climbers lower off trees.

4.4下降點的設置處,應選在攀登者須經樹林而下降的地點。

4.5 The placement of any fixed protection/anchors is banned within a Government defined wilderness area or reference area.

4.5固定支點固定點的設置處,須在政府限定的野外區域或建議區域的範圍內。

4.6 When drilling holes every effort should be made to minimise the impact on other visitors to the area. Dust is to be brushed away from the rock and drilling should be done at a time that is not likely to disturb other people.

4.6施工鑽孔時,須將對該區其他遊客的負面影響降到最低。將岩石上因施工而產生的塵土清除,並選在較不會影響他人的時段施工。

4.7 Fixed protection/anchors should not be placed within any area of importance to Aboriginal communities. If in doubt, the VCC Access Officer should be able to find out if there are any potential problems.

4.7固定支點不得設置在任何重要的原住民社區範圍內。如有疑問,VCC接待人員應能為你解答是否有潛在的問題。


5. Replacing Bolts, Bolt Removal and Retro-Bolting
更換錨釘,移除錨釘,重修路線

5.1Unsafe fixed protection should be reported to a representative of the local climbing group.

5.1發現不安全的固定支點時,應向本地攀岩團體負責人回報。

5.2 Unsafe fixed protection should, where practicable, be replaced by the local climbing community, the first ascentionist or other experienced and interested climber.

5.2在可行的情況下,不安全的固定支點應由本地的攀登組織、該路線首攀者、或其他有經驗、有心力的攀登者進行更換。

5.3 Carrot bolts requiring the placing of a bolt-plate should only be replaced with a glue in hangerless machine bolt, except in situations where a hangerless bolt may be unsafe such as on an overhang or at a tenuous clip with a dangerous fall.

5.3更換需要裝設錨栓板的Carrot錨栓時,除非該處是懸岩地形或是峭薄的岩壁而不適用無掛環錨栓,否則,只能以黏著式的無耳片機械錨栓加以更換。

5.4 Fixed hangers or ringbolts should only be replaced by fixed hangers or ringbolts.

5.4固定吊環或環形耳片應只能以固定耳片或環形錨栓以更換。

5.5 When a piton is intentionally removed it should be replaced with a fixed hanger or ringbolt.

5.5為某因素而特意移除岩釘時,應以固定耳片或環形錨栓加以更換。

5.6 If a piton is unintentionally removed then it should not be replaced if good natural protection is available. Where good natural protection is not available a fixed hanger or ringbolt should replace the piton. Old pitons should not be reused once they fall out.

5.6若一岩釘在無意中脫離位置,而該處又有良好的天然支點,則不應設置他物以取代岩釘。若該處並無良好的天然支點,則應以固定耳片或環形錨栓取代該岩釘。老舊的岩釘一旦脫出之後,就不得重新加以使用。

5.7 Piton scars should not be filled. Often natural protection can be placed in the scars so that the rock isn\'t damaged any further.

5.7不應填補因使用岩釘而產生的縫穴。通常該縫穴可用來設置天然支點,而使該處岩石不必遭受更多損害。

5.8 Where possible old fixed protection should be extracted from the rock. If appropriate, old 10mm holes should be re-drilled to 12mm and the new bolt placed in the same position. Note: in soft rocks extracting fixed protection may leave unsightly damage in the form of a crater.

5.8可能老化的固定支點應由岩石中取出。取出之後,應將原來10公厘的小洞鑽為12公厘,再將新的錨栓設在同樣的位置。注意:在岩質鬆軟處取出固定支點時,可能會在對小洞造成難以察覺的損壞。

5.9 Where old fixed protection cannot be removed the old protection should be cut off flush with the rock or (preferably) sheared off below the rock surface and the hole then plugged. Old bolts must not be left protruding from the rock surface.

5.9當老舊的固定支點無法移除時,應將其切除,使其與岩面齊平;或最好在切除時,使其低於岩面,再將洞口補平。留在岩壁上的老舊固定支點決不能凸出岩面。

5.10 When a fixed wire/sling/rope/cord is an essential point of protection then it should be removed and replaced with fixed hanger/ringbolt/rappel/abseil anchors.

當構成支點的主要元件為鐵線/扁帶/繩索/細繩時,最好將之移除,並用固定耳片/環形錨栓/下降固定點加以取代。

5.11 Old bolt holes not re-used should be filled in with glue/resin/putty of a similar colour to the rock. Note: small or crushed stones of the same rock type mixed with the glue can improve the colour match and make excellent plugs.

5.11舊有錨栓留下來的洞口,應用和該處岩石色彩相似的黏膠、樹脂、補土加以補滿。注意:用該處岩石的小碎塊、泥粉混入黏膠中,可使黏膠顏色與岩石更相近,補得更完美。

5.12 Where there has been a change in bolt type, number or placement then the route description should be re-written by the person placing the bolts and published as a modified route (same as for new route descriptions).

一旦路線上的錨栓類型、數量或位置有所變動,則路線介紹應由裝設錨栓者重新撰寫,並公開聲明該路線已有所更改。


A Final Note: No fixed protection can be considered 100% safe. It is the VCC’s aim to promote improvement in the quality of fixed protection and minimise the risk of fixed protection failure. It is the individual climber’s responsibility to assess each and every piece of fixed protection and make a calculated and informed decision on whether or not the protection is adequate and whether or not to proceed with the climb.

最後警告:沒有任何固定支點可說是百分之百安全的。VCC旨在促進固定支點品質之提升,並使固定支點的失事風險降到最低。每一位攀岩者都有責任對每一個固定支點及其部件進行評估,並在充分認知及估算後,判斷該固定支點是否堪用,及自己是否要進行攀登活動。




2---------

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[ 這篇文章修改由: shin 在 2004-05-27 14:06 ]
__________________
台灣攀岩資料庫
kevin 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2003-10-18, 08:43   #2
Ta-Chi
輕度攀岩者
 
註冊日期: 2003-05
文章: 77
Ta-Chi
VCC天然岩場打路線政策(澳洲)

裕馨:

謝謝您辛苦的翻議。翻的又快又好。但我有二個建議(只是建議):

一,fixed protection 翻成「確保點」會不會被誤認為「固定點」(固定點才有確保的動作)﹖protection 習慣上翻成「支點」。所以,「固定支點」﹖

二,the last resort,「最後的手段」是直翻。文意會不會稍為僵硬了一些。「最後的手段」往往也可詮釋成正當化。所以,「不得已的手段」﹖「不得已」好像比較「不正當化」,意謂著可打可不打。 [img]images/forum/smilies/[/img]
Ta-Chi 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2003-10-18, 08:43   #3
shin
週末攀岩者
 
註冊日期: 2001-11
文章: 44
shin
傳送 MSN 訊息給 shin
VCC天然岩場打路線政策(澳洲)

[quote]
On 2003-10-18 06:44, Ta-Chi wrote:

謝謝大濟前輩指出內文不妥之處.
這篇只是草稿.我本想和站長討論後才放上來,沒想到我一覺醒來,站長已將文章貼上了.
我會再進行修改的.

裕馨

[ 這篇文章修改由: shin 在 2003-10-18 08:43 ]
shin 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2003-10-18, 08:43   #4
shin
週末攀岩者
 
註冊日期: 2001-11
文章: 44
shin
傳送 MSN 訊息給 shin
VCC天然岩場打路線政策(澳洲)

這半年前翻的文章,到現在還沒翻完.
拖了這麼久, 虎頭蛇尾,怎麼說也過意不去.
回頭再找原文,發現vcc已對其規定稍作修訂,舊版的內容已找不著了.果然時光易逝,萬事俱變.
於是我只好將原文一段一段地附上,同時修改舊的譯文,以正版本.
不過,因為力求忠於原文,翻出來的內容很不親切,死死板板的,
只要大家看得懂,就多擔待吧.

不只這篇,我好像還有些文章都只完成了一半,
實不可取.我會一點一點地補完的.







[ 這篇文章修改由: shin 在 2004-05-18 04:31 ]
shin 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2003-10-18, 08:43   #5
Ta-Chi
輕度攀岩者
 
註冊日期: 2003-05
文章: 77
Ta-Chi
VCC天然岩場打路線政策(澳洲)

Excellent!
Ta-Chi 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2003-10-18, 08:43   #6
shin
週末攀岩者
 
註冊日期: 2001-11
文章: 44
shin
傳送 MSN 訊息給 shin
VCC天然岩場打路線政策(澳洲)

全文翻譯完畢
新增的部份直接改在第一篇中.
看得出來當地政府和攀岩組織有合作密切,
管理得當,
並盡力在保存天然景觀和滿足路線需求之間求平衡.
當地的取向似乎在於\"以保持岩壁原貌為優先\".
除非基於安全考量,不輕易打路線.
路線一旦開發完成,在可行的情形下,之後的維修者須尊重首攀者決定的路線型態進行維修.
而維修也有許\多細節必須遵守,
以求達到安全,實用,美觀,自然兼俱.
但這些也只是我乍看之下的粗淺認知.

也許\國情不同,攀岩環境有異,
但他山之石可以攻錯.




[ 這篇文章修改由: shin 在 2004-05-18 16:30 ]
shin 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2003-10-18, 08:43   #7
milk
版主
 
註冊日期: 2003-05
文章: 190
milk 是普普通通的會員
VCC天然岩場打路線政策(澳洲)

Quote:

1.3在可利用天然方式確保的攀爬區域裝設固定支點為不當之舉。安裝固定支點應是非不得以的考量,目的只在將攀登時的嚴重運動傷害風險降到最低。(例,在可安全墜落之處,不得為求縮短墜落距離而安裝固定支點。)
1.4一路線由首攀者以天然方式確保完攀後,未經首攀者同意,不得於該路線上增加或移動固定支點(如重修路線時)。如果固定支點的裝設位置必須更改,卻無法聯絡上首攀者,那麼就必須依「本地最佳範例」施工(參照第五節 更換錨栓,移除錨栓,重修路線。)路線必須保持其首攀者開發時致力追求的純粹型態。移動或增加錨栓可能改變路線的原貌,讓首攀者的努力付之東流。


這是我個人認為最重要的部份,希望認同的人一齊來努力,讓它也成為台灣天然岩場開發的共同準則.

[ 這篇文章修改由: shin 在 2004-05-27 14:09 ]
milk 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2003-10-18, 08:43   #8
Ta-Chi
輕度攀岩者
 
註冊日期: 2003-05
文章: 77
Ta-Chi
VCC天然岩場打路線政策(澳洲)

Concur with Milk. This is exactly \"the\" principle that I tried to promote not long ago for the Longdong Classics.



Ta-Chi 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
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