這起事件不是單純的偶發事件，有其深沈的背景原因，就如同當事者 Jonathan Griffith 所說的：“ . . . The reasons behind the attack are complicated and deep-rooted, and to do with the relationship between Westerners and Nepalis on the mountain over many years. They are not because of our direct actions . . .”
另一個背景原因則是近20年來，遠征太過 “商業化” 的結果。CNN 報導：“[M]oney has changed the Everest experience and spawned resentment among Sherpas . . . 'They're angry at this financial gap on their mountain,' Jonathan Griffith said of the Sherpas. 'These commercial trips are based on a lot of luxury and getting you up the mountain and a lot of these Western clients don't even know what the names of their Sherpas are.' And that, he says, makes him wonder if he'll try Everest again . . . 'I didn't think the main danger would be a mob of Sherpas throwing rocks,' Griffith is quoted as saying . . ."
“ . . . We were all anxious to see if justice would be served to the handful of folks that had instigated the assault of at least four Westerners and one Sherpa. I felt that the companies that employed the men responsible should at the very least fire the men and get them off the mountain so the situation could not repeat itself . . . I am here to climb and that is what I still intend to do . . . ”
“As this story has emerged in the media it has become clear that the Sherpas have not been given a voice. The press releases, the blogging, and reports from the European climbers have dominated the headlines. Meanwhile the Sherpa are quietly continuing to fix the rope and continue their work at nearly 8000 meters on Everest. These Sherpa help realize the dream of many western climbers and will continue to be honored and respected by the foreign climbers who climb with them on Everest.
多數的報導都是來自洋人，完全忽略了雪巴人對這件事情的看法 . . .
I have pieced together an objective version of events different from what is currently in the media headlines . . .
以下整理出事件發生前後始末，以下也與現登於大眾媒體的稍有不同 . . .
On April 18th, 2013:
All expedition leaders and Sherpa Sirdars (Sherpa 的領隊們）were invited and attended a meeting in Everest base camp to discuss the rope fixing strategy for this season on Everest. At this meeting everyone had a chance to suggest the best strategy and route to safely climb the mountain. The meeting concluded with the nomination of fixing Sherpas (the best available) and the suitable dates to complete the work. It was also agreed at the meeting by all the expedition leaders that nobody would be climbing on the route on these dates except the fixing team. That while these young men were working to fix the route for all expeditions at base camp, no expedition would disrupt or create a distraction for them. Unfortunately, Simone Moro did not attend this meeting, and might not have been aware that this protocol is an unwritten rule on Everest.
Over the next few days all the teams at base camp pitched in and Sherpas carried over 50 loads through the Khumbu Icefall to Camp 2. The fixing started on April 26th, for 2 days the Sherpa were scouting the best route on the Lhotse face and by the 27th they were less than an hour from reaching camp 3.
The 3 European climbers set out the morning of the 27th heading for the Lhotse face. After suggestions from both guides and Sherpa at Camp 2 and below the Lhotse face to turn around, because fixing the Lhotse face demands strict concentration, the 3 climbers continued on to the Lhotse face moving up and to the left of the fixing route. The 3 climbers moved alpine style up the Lhotse face and were headed towards their camp (just below camp 3 on the Lhotse face).
At this time the Sherpa fixing team were working on the Lhotse Face and have reached one of the steeper & more exposed areas. The temperature was dropping and the winds were picking up. As the fixing team was moving through a steeper section of the Lhotse face, the 3 European climbers met with the fixing team. The fixing team alerted the 3 climbers to not touch or cross the rope. This is a high intensity environment where people’s instincts are at a heightened state. The lead fixing Sherpa spoke with one of the 3 climbers at which point physical contact was made, at that point Simone came in verbal contact with a number of the fixing team who had now congregated at one of the anchors to secure themselves from sliding down the face.
Simone began to shout, many of the words in Nepali language, and many of the words were inflammatory. At this point the fixing team made the correct decision to drop their loads of rope and hardware, attaching them to the installed line, and descend without any further interaction or confrontation with the 3 climbers. The fixing team descended to camp 2 and went to their respective camps as a number of expedition teams work together to fix the route on Mt. Everest. As the fixing team descended to camp 2, Simone radioed down requesting to know what the Sherpa were talking about. At one point Simone stated over open radio frequency (fixing frequency-tuned in by all the fixing teams and anyone listening on the mountain) that if the Sherpa had a problem he could come down to Camp 2 soon and “f—ing fight”.
As Simone returned back to Camp 2 he again spoke over the fixing frequency a demand to speak with the fixing team comprised of 16 Sherpa (of 8 different teams) back at camp 2. He explained that he would meet them at one of the expedition camps. When he arrived in Camp 2 he went to his tent. At this point some western guides went to Simone’s camp to explain that he should apologize for the situation his team created during a very dangerous workday. As the western guides spoke to Simone, Sherpas from many different teams congregated as a result of his radio call from the Lhotse face and wanted to speak with Simone and get an apology and to explain to him how difficult their job had been that day. The Sherpas who were together felt that Simone’s words and interactions were both hurtful to the individuals, as well as grave and serious insults to the entire Sherpa community. As the Sherpas approached Simone’s camp tensions were high and they wanted to have a discussion with an already angered Simone. Then Simone came out to talk and both sides approached each other in loud discussion at which point a careless western climber who had not been involved up on the Lhotse face arrived and entangled physically with a Sherpa. This was the ignition for what ensued next. It is safe to say that the Sherpa thought this western climber was part of Simone’s team and had initiated a dangerous confrontation. At this point the Sherpa felt as if they needed to defend themselves as they had just seen one of their colleagues attacked. The tense situation ignited and a brawl ensued.
The brawl was stopped by a group of western climbers and Sherpa working together. Simone’s team was protected by both a Sherpa group and a few western climbers and guides. As the group separated, Simone requested to apologize for his actions. After things calmed down, Simone’s team descended to base camp. The following day, April 28th, was peaceful . . .”
" . . . I realise that when you see the reaction from the Sherpas that it is natural to think that we did something terrible that we are not saying, but honestly this was not the case. The only reason given from the lead Sherpa was that we knocked ice down but I honestly cannot imagine this happened, the fact that no Sherpa has come forward with any injuries does back us up some what. I accept that our presence on the mountain may have stressed the Sherpas out but statements that we were told not to climb that day are total fabrications. We were asked by a IMG guide to not clip in to the ropes and naturally we did not do so . . ."
Phinjo ： “Thank you Alen for sharing the Sherpa side of the story as they don’t have the access to western media. The Sherpa community appreciates your unbiased viewpoint of the unfortunate event on Mt. Everest.”
Pasang ： “First Thank you Alan for your observations and report! I personally wishing that some Sherpa should write true observation report, and I know there are few Sherpas who wants to write as like you. Any way you did it. Hope now everything will be good, there in mountain’s holy place and media’s, hello place. Every once love right report with observation.”
Yangzin： “Namaste Allen，Thank you for clear news what had happened during the season and also about mutual goal. Really we have to preserve our relation since 1953ad. We have to follow and respect our relation what Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenjing Norge taught us. Thank you Allen for sharing point of view of both side.”
Nawang："It’s good to hear, other side story, I believe Sherpas would never initiate such act as mentioned in western media."
Ajay：“Dear Alan, Thank you so much for sharing this article. being a Nepali, i don’t want these conflicts to occur in Nepal with our guests. and the news published on http://www.planetmountain.com ( one of my friend in India who was closely reading updates of the climbers shared the news on her facebook) made me sad and worried about the 3 climbers. but at the same time, the news didn’t have the other side of the story so i was waiting for some news on Sherpas and how it got so intense that they had to fight for their existence or ego. now i’m clear about that had happened. Thank you once again.”
最後，所有西方主要媒體都忙著採訪三位西方當事人，這是大事，不少歐洲報紙到現在還把這件事當頭條，連美國都忙著湊熱鬧（三位當事人沒有一個美國人），訪問不到當事人，就訪問了 Mount3092 在前兩篇 po 的訊息的那位作者。
“ . . . To me, the bottom line is that multiple mistakes were made by both sides. On Everest, the professional climbers (even when attempting new routes) also benefit from fixed ropes, trails broken, and rescue caches placed, primarily by the Sherpa. The professional climbers involved could have and should have chosen somewhere else to acclimatize on this day, instead of solo climbing above the rope fixing team. Everyone knew about the rope fixing effort, and other teams that would have liked to be climbing where the incident occurred respected the rope fixing effort and stayed off the Lhotse Face. Even if no rock or ice actually was knocked off by the professional climbers, and even if no rope-fixing Sherpa was injured, there was still a perception of disrespect for the effort. As part of past rope-fixing efforts on Everest, I can attest to the importance of not having other climbers pushing the team from below, or putting the team at risk from above . . .”（底線是我加的重點）
Tsering Jangbu： “Hello everyone, I am a sherpa from the place of mount everest too, but i currently live in Kathmandu (Capital). I did have a glimpse of BBC news broadcasting the Mount Everest situation on television, but was busy on computers. Reading this article, i couldn't believe what had happened to the team up there in the mountains. As far as i believe Sherpas are suppose to be the most welcoming and friendly people, looks like we have really disappointed everyone, if what Simone Moro has told is true. On behalf of all those Sherpas, I would like to apologize for the life threatening situation the team had to face. I wish nothing, but never for such thing to happen to anybody's life. Not all sherpas see this article, so i've said what any other sherpas would.”
但他得到的回應之一是：“You sherpas need to clean house！”
Ang Sherpa：“ Signor Moro (Dotore!) Bonjorno! I am very sorry this unfortunate incident has happened, all this was unnecessary. There is a big big cultural differences, one has to be tolerent and sensitive to local culture. Brought Couburn touched on the subject, difficult to expect Sherpas of today to behave as their ansestors, some are spoilt, but majority are friendly and humble people. Definately some bad habits has been introduced over the years due to massive influx of tourism. Tourism has become a double edged sword for us Sherpas, brings money and bad influence since all tourists are not same. What really surprised me is why Mr.Moro has not been tactful enough to navigate in this culture for the amount of exposure he has gained over the years. Sherpas are very proud but humble in nature, they resent show offs, arrogance and display of wealth and power. I live and work in Europe, struggle to convince my counterpart that being humble and polite does not mean lack of self confidence in our culture. May I suggest Mr. Moro , next time leave your helicopter back home and come just like any other simple climber to enjoy the mountain but not for fame and glory. When you are in Roma,act as Romans.Needless to tell, Italian soccer players knows all the tricks to win the game. Ah! the main point, there were many many nationalities climbing same time as you but why did this unfortunate incident happened with you? did you question yourself?Whoever is proven guilty should be disciplined , our mountains are getting poluted.Ciao!”
“If the events unfolded as stated above （指的是 Moro 的版本） it sounds like the sherpas needed a few rounds from a gun. What idiots! Guess what you dumbshits.... you don't own the mountain, you just work there!”
“ . . . Approaching base camp two days later I saw two sherpas near the tents demonstrating victory by urinating openly five meters before a group of foreigners. What can be said about it? One word - pigs.”
以下則是 Peter Athans，知名登山家以及尼泊爾義工，昨天（五月六日）接受 “國家地理雜誌” 採訪時，所持對這件事以及對雪巴的看法，比較溫和：
" . . . Allegations that Simone Moro shouted on the radio that he would fight the Sherpas at Camp 2 surprised both Ueli Steck and Jonathan Griffith when they heard about it. When this allegation came out both Ueli and Jonathan had split from Simone for a day on their travels back to Kahtmandu. It took the two climbers a while to corroborate with people at Camp 2, who had been on the radios, to make sure that this was not true. Indeed those who were listening to the climbing frequency on the day deny that Simone said anything of the sort (as does he). Furthermore the main report from GARRETT MADISON is full or factual errors that can be disproved from eyewitnesses. The fact that he was in BASE CAMP and not at CAMP 2 meant that he would not be able to receive the radio signal being sent from high up on the Lhotse Face. It is important that people do not represent 2nd or 3rd hand information as their own accounts of what happened on the day. This is a very sensitive subject and rumours have no place in the reporting of it . . ."
" . . . We generally live by the climbers’ code of “what goes on the mountain, stays on the mountain” but since spending the last few days catching up on the sensationalised media coverage of the Camp 2 dispute, we feel that Himalayan Ascent should express a few words concerning the event from our perspective at Camp 2 and from discussions with the involved Sherpa climbers that day.
We already know that on April 27th, a team of Sherpas fixing the lines to Camp 3 had a heated exchange with 3 foreign climbers on the Lhotse face. The 3 climbers were not expected on the route that day by commercial expeditions and particularly were not expected by the fixing team. The team had already experienced one frustrating and failed day of route fixing and they were keen to get the job done. We watched the groups of climbers come together on the face, and after some time, the other 3 climbers separated and continued higher. We then heard the fixing team report into the radio their utter dissatisfaction regarding the exchange; the 3 climbers had not heeded to their requests to avoid their lines and they stated that the 3 climbers had verbally and physically abused them. Simone has since admitted that he did not speak respectfully to the Sherpas that day and that he did use extremely offensive words in Nepali. Understanding the seriousness of the matter, a lead western guide then attempted to radio Simone several times to request him to apologise to the fixing team, eventually Simone answered and we heard him reply along the lines of “I’ll talk to the f---ing Sherpas when I get down”. The Sherpas were shocked. Simone is a well-known respected climber in Nepal, and they were disappointed and angry at his arrogance and lack of respect of the job they were performing. The fixing team anchored their gear and dropped down to Camp 2.
At Camp 2 the fixing team discussed the event with western expedition leaders and with other Sherpas who had listened into the radio. When the 3 climbers arrived into Camp 2, the fixing team were ready to meet them. Everyone else at Camp 2 were also anticipating the “meeting”. The fixing team wanted an apology from the group for their hurtful words. Some western guides acted as a mediator between where the Sherpas were and the group’s camp. Simone was apparently reluctant to offer an immediate apology and eventually the fixing team became impatient, so they walked into the group’s camp to talk to Simone directly. To the many western bystanders watching, this may have seemed like the fixing team were going into the camp to fight. The fixing team threw rocks at the tent to get the group to come out. Some western guides ran to “protect” the group. One western guide tackled a Sherpa carrying a rock perhaps thinking he was going to throw it to hurt someone. Unfortunately, this first assault on the fixing team triggered them to respond aggressively. It was the regular start of what someone else has called a bar brawl at Camp 2 . . . "
其中一位筆名 Jan 的留言者，原名應為 Janice Sacherer，是一位人類學家也是登山者，對尼泊爾的種族、政經情形非常了解，她的專業知識、客觀溫和筆觸、以及大膽直接看法，等於主導 Supertopo 整個的討論，她寫的東西對我而言是個教育，大且廣的視野用來分析細微的事件前後始末讓人驚艷，也讓人深思！
"I am defending the Sherpas because I know their culture and because there's no one else to defend them. I am not justifying violence. The Sherpa culture and religion is very pacifist so what I'm telling you is that if they resorted to violence there's a lot else going on that we don't know about, maybe involving the three climbers who set it off, maybe not. Since the three western climbers involved are all experienced in the Himalayas, and Moro in particular has a good reputation for rescues, it is especially puzzling that the three of them would breach climbing protocol like they did. For 60 years, the rule on the mountain has been that no one interferes with the Sherpa teams who have the job of fixing the ropes, quite a few of whom have died doing that in the Khumbu icefall. Normal civilization involves following the rules and customs of the local people. If climbers don't want to play by those rules, they should go to a mountain without crowds of tourists and Sherpas. They have options and the Sherpas don't . . ."
"Every Sherpa has stories of extra money and gear they were promised to help a client down after that client refused their advice, went for the top and got in trouble. Every Sherpa has stories of the client disappearing or forgetting the conversation when they were back in base camp. Not all Sherpas are good or western clients foolish and bad. If you study the history of Himalayan moutaineering starting back in the 1920's however, it is the Sherpas who have suffered the overwhelming amount of exploitation, not the westerners."
"As for money motivations, western people have many means of making money. The Sherpas live in a country where the per capita income is $300 a year and unemployment is above 50%. Their options are to climb or go to work in construction in the Gulf States, hardly a climate they are used to. Can you really blame them for earning a living at what they do best?"
" . . . If we can step back and look at this more from a social science point of view instead of a personal morality play, then as Jim Brennan pointed out, mob action is the hallmark of poor and disenfranchised people. Compared to the westerners with their hot showers and internet connections and high tech music and nightly videos in base camp, do you really think the Sherpas have an equal say in things? Can they really compete by western rules? Do they have the same access to the internet, book and movie contracts, good English language skills for explaining their position, money to hire lawyers etc? Clearly the answer is no. The fact that we have a dozen western accounts of the episode and only one Sherpa with the resources to reply, is a good indication of the imbalance. What the Sherpas have is what they used - numbers and dominance on the mountain. They certainly could have killed the climbers if they had wanted, but they didn't. They wanted to make a point and they did. Most people are backing the Sherpas. From a purely political point of view (which is usually quite separate from an idealistic moral point of view) they succeeded . . ."
“. . . What the Sherpa response to the elite three did, was ensure that nobody is going to climb next to, or over Sherpa rope fixing any time soon. I believe that making an example of the three elites and stopping this practice in its tracks was their original intention which unfortunately was marred by violence. It has subsequently been stated that everyone climbing the mountain will have to sign a contract in the future promising not to climb where the Sherpas are fixing rope. If they do, they can be pulled off the mountain and might even find themselves in a Nepalese jail for a night or two . . . I believe the Sherpas accomplished what they set out to do which was re-establish themselves as the masters of the mountain . . ."
" . . . I don't believe they intended to kill Moro, Steck, and Griffith on their sacred mountain. I do believe they intended to let them know that all of the Sherpa climbers, not just a few, found their disrespect intolerable. They wanted Moro on his knees to apologize for insulting them and their mothers as such curses are taken much more seriously in their culture than ours. I am sure they also intended to scare the wits out of the three and chase them off the mountain which they did . . . In the end, the way I see it, the three alpinists involved have brought yet more regulation to the mountain and only strengthened the Sherpa's position . . ."
"Whatever system is worked out for the future, it will depend on the Sherpas and we assume the western guide companies, coming up with the solutions since the Nepalese government has been non functional for many years now with the promise of more of the same (four years for a Constituent Assembly to draft a new non monarchial constitution at which they totally failed, new elections to be held for another such assembly and no guarantee of better results). The judicial system seems to have the most integrity of Nepalese national institutions, so perhaps changing the law or at least the regulations is the route to go . . ."
﹣﹣ “Climbers who cross ladders set by Sherpas at the Khumbu Icefall, then go up without ropes and claim to be special are parasites," Messner told a crowd at the British embassy in Kathmandu, in an apparent reference to Steck and Moro . . .
﹣﹣ “Climbers who cross ladders set by Sherpas at the Khumbu Icefall, then go up without ropes and claim to be special are parasites," Messner told a crowd at the British embassy in Kathmandu, in an apparent reference to Steck and Moro . . .
昨天剛好有機會和秋良聊到這個事件，個人對於 Ueli Steck 沒有特別喜好，因為他做的事離我太遙遠，我無法拿他當 role model ，只是我觀察他所做的事，我覺得要不是真的喜歡攀登，不太可能去做這些嘗試。該個雪巴事件我覺得他們只是壓斷駱駝的最後一根稻草。
我相信 Ueli Steck 是很喜歡攀登的。
最近看到的對 Messner 的訪談：
Right there, in Nepal, Swiss top climber Ueli Steck has caused a sensation by climbing solo through the Annapurna South Face. What is your view on this performance?
Ueli Steck has not been very lucky this year on Everest. The attack at Camp 2 has actually not been directed at him. The Sherpas wanted to hit others, real parasites. Steck and Simone Moro are no parasitic climbers, even if they used the fixed route via the Khumbu Icefall, without having talked to the Sherpas or having paid them. Last year Ueli Steck climbed Everest via the normal route which was not “Steck-like”. But what he did now on Annapurna, was again typically Ueli Steck: Climbing quickly, climbing at night to avoid rockfall, via a very difficult wall. He had tried the South Face twice before but failed, once even quite dramatically, because he was hit by a stone. I really have great respect for this climb. The way he did it is the only one that allows you to climb such a difficult and dangerous wall in Alpine style.